The existing research shows that high-speed grinding is the main way to machining the common materials and difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and critically. However, the research on mechanism and high-speed characteristics of high-speed cylindrical grinding is few searched. Based on three-dimensional simulation software DEFORM-3D, the simulation model of high speed cylindrical grinding with single grit was established, and the relevant experiment of 3D simulation for high speed cylindrical grinding process was processed. In this paper, the impact of the grinding parameters, such as wheel speed and depth of cut on the grinding force and grinding temperature is explored through analyzing the variation of strain rate, grinding force and temperature, and found that the increasing strain rate can lead to the increase in grinding force and temperature. According to the simulation experiment results, the control model of grinding temperature for prediction of grinding temperature and optimization of grinding parameters, is analyzed and developed in the end. The engineering experiment, conducted on the high speed cylindrical grinder and measured grinding temperature with thermal infrared imager, has been carried out in this study. Engineering and simulation experiments results show good match, for grinding temperature would decline with the increasing wheel speed when the grinding depth keeps constant, and thus can reduce grinding burn, improve the surface quality of workpiece.