After the three-dimensional solid modeling of the SG135 automobile gearbox, finite element analysis models of static, transient and harmonic response load are built based on correlation theory. On the basis of ADAMS dynamic simulation of different gearbox gears, transient load of the gearbox casing at different working gears is found out. With frequency response characteristic of gearbox casing analyzed at typical working conditions of first gear and reverse gear, the evaluation of some factors such as strength and stiffness are given out, which provides theory basis for further improvement of gearbox casing structure and strengthening weak links. Based on harmonic response analysis, the impact on gearbox casing structural vibration by harmonic excitation of the engine is imitated, and the match relation of frequency response between the gearbox and the engine is analyzed. Improvements about engine operational limits matching and gearbox structural design are proposed.