Ordered nanoporous carbon (ONC) was synthesized by adopting sucrose as precursor and SBA-15 as template. The thermal stability of sucrose and its SBA-15 composite were detected by thermogravimertic analysis. Transmission Electron Microscope, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption technology were used to characterize the morphology, microstructure and specific surface area of resultant ONC. The effects of carbonization temperature and pre-carbonization on the microstructure of ONC were investigated. The results have shown that SBA-15 is a kind of ideal template for preparing ONC, from which ONC with the diameter around 8 nm was obtained. When carbonized at 700 °C, the specific surface area of ONC derived is 2884.05 m2/g.