In this paper, the domestic old book paper(DOBP) was subjected to deinking process. Surface and colloid characterisitics of DOBP deinking pulp(DIP) system was investigated. The relation between surface and colloid characterisitic changes and efficiency of deinking (brightness and residual ink particles content) was studied. Technical conditions that affect the deinking pulp’s colloid chemical behavior were also analyzed here.The results showed that colloid-chemical behavior of DOBP deinking system could be changed during the deinking process. The colloid-chemical behavior, such as Zeta potential and surface tention, had a certain corresponding relation with deinking efficiency of DOBP deinking system. When Zeta potential of the deinking system was more great, and surface tension was more low in a certain range(Zeta potential was -17.0~ -16.0mV and surface tension was 59.0~61.0mN/m), brightness and ink removal efficiency of DOBP will be improved.