In this paper, two types of fiber surface treatment methods, namely heat treatment and chemical coupling, were used to improve the basalt fiber surface properties. The basalt fiber surface was heated under 250Celsius degree for 30minites, and then was treated by silane coupling agent ethanol solution with different concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized to study the surface chemical compositions of basalt fiber after treatments. The XPS analysis indicated that chemical bonds between basalt fiber and KH-550 have occurred, and silanols were adsorbed to the surface of basalt fibers by an ether linkage between the silanols and the hydroxyl groups of the fibers. When the concentration of KH-550 is 0.8wt%, the optimal bonding condition is formed between basalt fiber and silane coupling agent.