In many countries, wheat straw is an abundant byproduct from wheat production in farming, only a minor portion of the straw is reserved as fuel, or raw materials for industry. In order to make good use of wheat straw, a series of materials based them are prepared by acylation grafting with propionic anhydride in a solvent-free system. The capability of the grafted straw to absorb oil from aqueous solution was studied and compared with the raw straw. It is found that wheat straw is more effectively at absorbing oil after chemically modification than the raw one in 15 minutes. And the grafted material is significantly more hydrophobic than the raw wheat straws. Characterization of chemically modified straw was performed by SEM, XRD.