Ionic liquid, 1-(2-hydroxylethyl)-3-ethylene imidazolium chloride ([HeVIM]Cl) was synthesized and its chemical structures was examined by FTIR and 1HNMR. Fir powder was extracted with a mixture of benzene/ethanol or activated with 25% (mass fraction) NaOH under normal temperature and pressure, microwave and high pressure. Dissolution of the pretreated wood powder in [HeVIM]Cl by microwave (90°C, 400w) was studied. The results showed that the ionic liquid [HeVIM]Cl exhibited a good solubility. Wood powder pretreated with 25% NaOH under high pressure had the lowest crystallinity (2.4%) and the highest dissolution rate (21.6%).