The microstructure of fatigue fracture of aluminum alloys under various stresses and stress ratios were studied by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope, and the influences of microstructure features on microcrack initiation and propagation were investigated. The results show that the fatigue microcrack originated from surface or subsurface of specimens. And with the increase of stress ratio, fatigue crack originated from deeper subsurface at the same stress level. With the increase of stress level, fatigue crack originated from shallower subsurface or surface at same stress ratio. There is an increase in crack propagation region as the stress level decreases at the same stress ratio. Increasing of stress ratio, increases crack propagation region under same stress level. Microcrack generally originated from secondary (S phase particles) and larger particles at low stress level and high stress ratio. Microcrack generally originated from larger constituent particles at high stress level and low stress ratio. Microcracks propagation is evidently impeded by grain boundaries at low stress level and high stress ratio.