Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is a key technology in modern ironmaking by blast furnace and the life of injection lance has a great influence on PCI operation and on normal running of blast furnace. It is found that the main reasons for the failure of the lances are their outer surface oxidation and the inner surface erosion through monitoring some lances used in BF. The outer surface oxidation of the lances made of lCr18Ni9Ti is inevitable under high hot blast temperature condition through thermodynamics analysis. Increasing the inner surface hardness by surface treatment would prolong the service life of coal lance. The anti-oxidation temperature of lance materials needs to be over 1000°C for BF intensified smelting.