The primary goal of failure modes-based optimization design which is to study the performance of structure without shocking absorption device is to transform the non-ideal failure modes of structure into the ideal failure modes, and then a small probability of the structure damage can be obtained. Although the study of this field is significant, no paper has so far attempted to study. Taking the cost of the structure into consideration, this paper aims at the failure modes-based optimization design. Therefore, an optimal approach based on failure modes with the ability to limit the cost is proposed. The procedure to obtain the failure modes-based optimization includes two phases, the concrete optimization and the shaped steel optimization. At last a reinforced concrete frame-shear wall structure is cited to verify the method developed. It is concluded that the method can supply an effective way to reduce both the damage and the cost of steel reinforced concrete framework-core tube structure.