In order to determine the optimal proportion of magnesium phosphate cement mortar, the influences of ratio of magnesium phosphate cement-based binder (MPB) to sand (MPB/S), effects of fly ash on fluidity and strength development of MPB mortar, and the compatibility between MPB and traditional concrete and shrinkage of MPB mortar were investigated in this paper. The optimal proportion in this test was: setting adjusting agent of 12%, P/M ratio of 1:2(in weight), MPB/S ratio of 1:1 and FA/S ratio of 15%. The results showed that the MPB mortar met the higher early strength requirement of rapid-repair materials, with compressive strength beyond 50MPa and flexural strength more than 9.1MPa at 3 hours, and at later ages no reduction of strength happened. There was a good compatibility between MPB and traditional concrete. The shrinkage of MPB mortar at 28 days was less than 2.89 × 10-4. Therefore MPB is very suitable for rapid repairing of concrete structures.