The Golmud-Lhasa section of Qinghai-Tibet railway strides over the Tibet Plateau hinterland, ‘the roof of the world’, which traverse to typical ecosystem, as desert, alpine grassland, plateau alpine meadows, swamp wetland, and permafrost zone. Due to the special ecological property of the Tibet Plateau, it become the more river source of the China, even of South Asia, it plays an irreplaceable role of ecological function of the China and the South Asia. The human actions and climatic changes have contributed to the environmental becoming worse and worse. Fragile ecological environment once destroyed, it recovering is very difficult or unrecoverable. The railway construction, it inevitable involved in environmental problem, therefore, how to implement ecological environmental protection is one of the most major subjects of the railway construction. This paper analyzed the adverse effect of the ecological environment in the railway construction period and summarizes the protection measures of ecological environment that had taken in the railway construction. Given the example of the human economic development and the environment protection could be harmonious and sustainable developed in the Tibet Plateau, also show the most precious experiences for the ecological environment protection of the project construction in the plateau zone.