The mechanism of fluid flow and heat transfer in the heat exchangers was investigated in this paper. Using R22 as the working fluid, the steady distributed parameter models of condenser and evaporator in a residential split air-conditioner were established based on thermophysical laws such as mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The regions of two-phase fluid and superheated gas in evaporator and the regions of superheated gas, two-phase fluid and subcooled liquid in condenser were respectively simulated under designed conditions of air-conditioning system. Based on the calculated results, the flow and heat transfer performances of heat exchangers were analyzed. The results show that the two-phase fluid regions in both evaporator and condenser have great influence on the fluid flow and heat transfer performances in it.