Desulfuration residues were used as aggregate to produce Non-autoclaved aerated concrete. The effects of water-hinder ratio, casting temperature on the gas forming behavior, and those of desulfuration residue content on the compressive strength and bulk density of aerated concrete were investigated. The types of the hydration products and the microstructure of Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with desulfuration residue were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. Results show that the optimum replacement amount was determined as 50% and at this rate the compressive strength, bulk density of Non-autoclaved aerated concrete were measured as 2.83 MPa and 543 kg/m3. The hydration products of Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with desulfuration residue are C2SH (A) and C2SH (B) along with ettringite and hydrogarnet phases.