Compared to the traditional testing technology, the fiber bragg grating(FBG) test technology has many unique advantages and is suitable for the long-term structure health monitoring. By testing the stress and strain conditions of the corrugated steel pipe culverts under different fill heights with FBG sensors set in the inner and outer of the culverts, the mechanical properties of the steel pipe culverts could be obtained. The field fiber optic test results show that the FBG sensors can be used in the structures under complex engineering conditions. When the fill height is added, the FBG test results will change significantly in real-time, and the strain values of all test points on the culvert will change with the increase of the fill height, particularly in the top and bottom test points of the culvert. So the Fiber optic test technology can adapt to the testing requirements of the corrugated steel structure, and can provide a basis for the design of the corrugated steel pipe.