It’s an effective method for measuring and monitoring of structure response of asphalt pavement with sensor to evaluate materials performance and to verify the validity of mechanical model. In this paper, a real-time system is established with FBG temperature and strain sensors. The strain of pavement structure caused by static test, the temperature fluctuation and the strain caused by air temperature variation are monitored with this system. The analytical results were derived by transfer matrix method based on the measured data and then were compared with the monitoring ones. The agreement of experimental observations and calculative results shows the feasibility of FBG sensors in temperature and strain monitoring of asphalt pavement structures and the validity of mechanical model.