The internal mechanical response of asphalt pavement structure is difficult to be obtained because of the limitations of theoretical calculation and present testing methods. In order to get practical information of instructure layers, this paper analyzed the cumulative and instantaneous strains of layers’ bottom of semi-rigid base asphalt pavement based on Accelerated Pavement Testing and Fiber Bragg Grating sensors, as well as got the spatial distribution and time-variation law of longitudinal, lateral and vertical strain responses under controlled loading condition. The research result shows that under the moving vehicle loads, there is an obvious alternative property of tension-compression as the strain response of the pavement structure, and different variation shapes of instantaneous stain are in different layers from top to down. Also the measured instantaneous three-direction strain of the bottom of each surface are higher than the calculated values with BISAR, while they anatomizes well in base. This paper can be regarded as useful and tentative research and application on future correlative study.