In order to evaluate and predict the behaviors of concrete structures under the normal atmospheric conditions, a new similarity experimental method is presented which can evaluate the field performance of reinforced concrete (RC) structures by measuring the structure in the artificial accelerated environment. The causes of concrete structural damage and the social harm caused by the RC structural durability failure were analyzed. The current status of concrete carbonation was described. The method establishes the similarity-relationship of performance changing between the field and the accelerated environmental conditions by contrasting and analyzing the behaviors changing under both environments, and realizes the effective and exact estimate to the field structures from the indoor accelerated experiments. It brings forward a new way of thinking to test the RC structures under the atmospheric conditions.