The mechanical properties of as-cast and hot-forging duplex stainless steel samples with the same compositions were characterized by nanoindentation. The effect of surface treating method and working state of the sample on the nanoindentation results of ferrite and austenite were discussed. The results show that the Young’s modulus and hardness of ferrite and austenite may be affected by the treating method of sample surface. The difference of Young’s modulus average of ferrite or austenite between as-cast and hot-forging duplex stainless steel samples is not great, but the hardness average of ferrite or austenite in hot-forging sample is obviously higher than those of as-cast sample. The difference of hardness between ferrite and austenite in the same sample is not great, but the young’s modulus of ferrite is higher than that of austenite.