Constructing a metro station by enlarging an existing large-diameter shield tunnel can be considered as an attempt to build metro engineering efficiently, safely and economically. To Take the Gaojiayuan station of Beijing metro line 14 as an object of study, two-dimensional finite element models are used to simulate metro station construction by enlarging a large-diameter shield tunnel with an outer diameter of 10 m, based on the soil-tunnel-pipeline-building interaction. According to the theory of orthogonal experimental design, four different supplementary construction measures are considered to study the influence of whether or not adopting the measures on deformation of adjacent structures during enlarging construction. The deformation of adjacent structures is predicted on the basis of adopting four supplementary construction measures. The numerical results can be regarded as a reference for the design and construction of metro station by enlarging large-diameter shield tunnel.