In this research, the effects of two variables, pouring temperature and chemical composition, on residual stress/strain have been studied. The residual strain was experimentally measured using the cutting technique and compared for several alloys; carbon steel, stainless steel, Ni-base superalloy, and cast iron. The thermo-elasto-plastic model was used to model the thermal stress distribution during casting and to predict the residual stress from point to point in rectangularshaped steel castings. Simulation results show that stress distribution is related to the thermal gradients throughout the castings, and maximum residual stress is developed at location which solidifies at the later freezing stages. In addition, the results of experimental measurements are applied to evaluate the effect of pouring temperature and chemical composition on residual stress and distortions in shaped castings.