The robustness and real-time performance are of the greatest significance for the navigation of the patrol robot in the transformer substation. To meet this demand, a navigation and position approach is presented in this paper based on color vision and RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) technology. In the presented system, the position information is provided by RFID tags and navigation is completed by the extraction of guidelines. Based on the deep analysis of the advantages and shortcoming of different color space, a new approach integrating the good real-time performance of grayscale image process and rich information in color images process is presented to improve the robustness and real-time performance of navigation. Fast Hough transform is selected and combined with least square method to detect the navigation line. Experimental results show that the presented method can meet the real-time and robust demand of the navigation of patrol robot.