By the field investigation and laboratory analysis methods, through research the characteristics of SOC, TN in soil of mixed Pine and Quercus, Nepalensis, Bayberry bushes, Pinus Yunnanensis and Abandoned Land in central Yunnan. It resulted that different plant communities took little impact on the soil physical properties, besides the soil moisture was remarkable, the bulk density and soil porosity effect is not prominent. The content of nutrients in different plant communities shows that vegetation abundant soil is more rich than vegetation sparse soils, and in 0~10 ㎝ SOC and TN content is higher than in 10~20 ㎝. Then by the study the C: N ratio in the soil, it showed that relative to the accumulation of TN, different communities in favour of the process SOC accumulation. The C: N ratio as follows: Abandoned land > Pinus Yunnanensis > mixed Pine and Quercus > Bayberry bushes > Nepalensis, so that revealed the ratio of C and N take negative correlation with their decomposition rate.