Niobium carbide (NbC) particulates -reinforced iron matrix composites were prepared by in- situ fabrication method combining an infiltration casting with a subsequent heat treatment. The microstructure and wear-resistance of NbC particulate-reinforced iron matrix composites were studied using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and wear testing. The results indicate that at 1172 °C for 3 hours NbC particulate-reinforced iron matrix composites were fabricated, and the size of NbC reinforcement was 0.3–3.5 μm. The relative wear resistance of the composites was 5.4 times higher than that of gray cast iron under a 20 N load. This was achieved at 22 % NbC volume fraction. Wear of the composites manifests as grooves, broken carbide particulates and some micro-cracks.