Taking into account of the key technologies of manufacturing of metal gradient structure shaft with high strength and toughness, interface microstructure, element diffusion, interface micro hardness and resistance to crack propagation ability of the pre-compounding shaft of 25Cr5MoA/Q235 steel manufactured by the method solid-liquid were studied in this paper. The results show that using extrusion forming methods, dense microstructure formed near the interface, and after the quenching and tempering treatment, the interface microstructure appears continuous distribution. Interface shear test results indicate that the shear strength is 412.69MPa. Cr element in the combination of the interface appears a continuous distribution; after quenching and tempering it shows a more uniform distribution, and micro hardness changed about 240HV across a region ranging from the bonding interface to both sides by the distance of 50μm. While the micro hardness of 25Cr5MoA/Q235 steel by the method solid-liquid changed about 160HV after the quenching and tempering treatment. The fracture toughness test of gradient structure shaft by solid-liquid compounding shows that because of the termination of crack propagation at the interface between the outer and inner layer, the safety of the graded structured axis in service would be improved.