The study aims to research the effect of the particle size of fly ash on the compressive strength and fracture toughness of high performance concrete (HPC). In all HPC mixtures, the water-to-binder ratio selected is 0.35; the cement replacement ratios includes 0%, 10% and 20%; the particle sizes of fly ash have three types of passing through sieves No. 175, No. 250 and No. 325. Three-point-bending test was adopted to measure the load-deflection relations and the maximum loads to determine the fracture energy (GF) and the critical stress intensity factor (KSIC). Test results show that adding fly ash in HPC apparently enhances the late age strengths of HPC either for replacement ratio of 10% or 20%, in which the concrete with 10% fly ash shows the higher effect. In addition, the smaller the particle size is the better the late age concrete strength will be. The HPC with the finer fly ash can have higher strength development and the values of GF and KSIC due to the facts of better filling effect and pozzolanic reaction. At late age, the GF and KSIC values of concrete with 10% fly ash are all higher than those with 20% fly ash.