For further study of mechanical properties of concrete-filled steel box columns (CFSBCs) with longitudinal stiffeners, axially loading tests of CFSBCs with longitudinal stiffeners was conducted to obtain their ultimate bearing capacity and failure modes. The test results were compared with those of hollow steel box columns with longitudinal stiffeners. Cross section of the test specimen was scaled from a chord member of Dongjiang Bridge. The experimental results show that failure mode of CFSBCs with longitudinal stiffeners is local buckling of steel plates, which is different from that of concrete-filled thin wall steel tube columns with longitudinal stiffeners. Although longitudinal stiffeners can prevent global buckling of steel plates, the effect is less obvious than that of concrete-filled thin wall steel tube columns. Meanwhile, three-dimensional finite element models (FEM) of the specimens were modeled using computer program ANSYS to obtain bearing capacities and load-strain curves. The FEM results coincide quite well with the test results. Further, influence of width to thickness ratio on mechanical behavior of CFSBCs was analyzed using FEM.