For improving wear properties of cotton fabric and exploiting ecological cotton textile with multifunction, cotton fabric was modified with anthraquinone extract of aloe. Aloe anthraquinone was fixed onto the surface of cotton fabric through the esterification crosslink of citric acid at high temperature using a pad-dry-cure process. The effects of citric acid concentration, catalyst concentration, aloe anthraquinone concentration and curing temperature on the treatment were mainly investigated. The optimized treating parameters for cotton fabric were obtained. The weight gain of modified fabric was significantly affected by the technical conditions. The breaking strength, moisture adsorption, wrinkle recovery angle, UV resistance and antibacterial properties of treated fabrics were respectively measured. The results showed that the wrinkle recovery angle of treated fabric markedly increased, whereas the breaking strength slightly decreased, and the moisture adsorption of fabrics kept almost unchanged. Additionally, the ultraviolet resistance and antibacterial property of modified cotton fabric became strong.