Because of the good photoelectric learning properties and chemical properties, CdTe nanocrystalline as an important Ⅱ-Ⅵ clan semiconductor materials has been used in LEDs, photonics, in aspects of materials and biomarker and so on. W/O microemulsion method has the peculiarity of tester simpleness, easy manipulation, room temperature react etc. In this paper CdTe nanoparticles was synthesized in CTAB/cyclohexane/isobutanol/water quatemary microemulsion system in alkaline condition and nitrogen. The morphology of the final products were characterized by X-ray power diffraction, transmission electron microscopy. according to the means, this paper researches the effect of surfactant contentration to morphology. The result is that the different morphology can be obtained through the different CTAB concentration. Finally, according to TEM chart, this paper infers the formation mechanism of the CdTe.