In order to identify the influence of solid solution, aging and solid solution plus aging treatments on the low-cycle fatigue behavior of the extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy, the low-cycle fatigue tests were performed at room temperature for the extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy with different treating states. The results indicate that the cyclic stress response behavior of the extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy exhibits both cyclic strain hardening and stability. The solid solution, aging and solid solution plus aging treatments tend to decrease the cyclic deformation resistance of the extruded AZ61 alloy in most conditions. The solid solution treatment can enhance the fatigue lives of the extruded AZ61 alloy at medium total strain amplitudes. In addition, the aging treatment can prolong the low-cycle fatigue lives of the AZ61 alloy at most total strain amplitudes, while the case for the solid solution plus aging treatment is just contrary. For the extruded AZ61 alloy with different treating states, a linear relationship between cyclic stress amplitude and plastic strain amplitude is noted.