Butt-joint specimens of Q235B low-strength steel were treated by TIG dressing and ultrasonic peening combined method. The paper presents comparative fatigue test for welded specimens in the as-welded condition and specimens treated by TIG dressing, ultrasonic peening treatment (UPT) and the combined method. When the ratio of stress R=0.1, contrasted with the specimens in as welded condition, the fatigue strength of the specimens treated by TIG dressing is increased by 36%. The fatigue strength of the specimens treated by the combined method and UPT are almost the same, which are increased by 57% and 56% respectively. In the high stress level, weld toe treated by the combined method has smaller stress concentration factor than that of UPT, resulting in less release of residual compressive stress. So it's more effective to improve the fatigue life by the combined method. While in the low stress level, the residual compressive stress of weld toe treated by the combined method and UPT are nearly the same. Besides, the effect of stress concentration factor is smaller, thus the fatigue life of the two methods have little difference.