An experimental study of low velocity impact (LVI) was carried out on 2D carbon fabric reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) ceramic matrix composites. The C/SiC composite specimens were impacted by using a free-drop impact machine at different energy levels ranging from 1J to 9J and acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to detect the damage process. The results indicated that AE signals could evaluate the LVI damage behaviors of C/SiC composites from the different aspects. By comparing impact load process with AE hits and AE amplitude, the damage process could be determined. In the loading stage, matrix cracking mainly occurred in the composites; when impact load reached peak load, delamination and fiber fracture started to produce; in the unloading stage, the damage modes were mainly delamination and matrix cracking. AE event count fractions could quantify the main damage modes at different impact energy levels. At lower impact energy, matrix cracking was the main damage mode; when impact energy were between 3J and 6J, delamination and matrix cracking became the main damage modes; at higher impact energy, fiber fracture was the main damage mode.