Removing water excessively could result in the formation of sphere-like agglomerates of TiO2 precursor with 1-2 μm in size, which was used to prepare TiO2 nanoparticles by detonation method. Different temperature distributions of TiO2 precursor agglomerates influenced the components of detonation products. In order to obtain the temperature distributions, a mathematic model was introduced to study the heat transfer behaviors of the TiO2 precursor agglomerates during the detonation process. The temperature history at spherical center with different spherical radiuses and time was also studied. The calculation results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The heat transfer analysis laid the foundation for the synthesis mechanism research of TiO2 nanoparticles, and it was also helpful to design and optimize experimental procedure.