Polymer flooding represents one of the most efficient processes to enhance oil recovery, but the poor thermostability and salt tolerance of the currently-used partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) impeded its use in high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoirs. “Smart” thermoviscosifying polymers (TVPs) may overcome the deficiencies of HPAM. Steady and dynamic rheological behaviors against temperature of a novel TVP were examined in this work in comparison with a commercial HPAM polymer. It was found when increasing temperature, both apparent viscosity and elastic modulus increase for TVP aqueous solution, but decrease for HPAM solution. The results indicate that TVP shows some potential to be used in enhancing oil recovery from high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoirs.