In this study, a competitive assay format using superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed for rapid, quantitative detection of shellfish major allergen tropomyosin (Tm). Sartorius CN140 nitrocellulose membrane and 0.05mg/mL Tm immobilized in the test line (T line) were optimized in order to improve the performance of the LFIA system. Calibration curves for Tm under PBS-T diluents and carp muscle extraction diluents were established. Limit of detection (LOD) for Tm calibrated by carp muscle matrix was 12.4ng/mL with a work range of 0.01 to 20μg/mL. According to magnetic signals change with the time of sample flowing on the strip, the qualitative time of the LFIA was about 10min, while the quantitative time of the LFIA was about 25min. 30 food species were detected separately by the LFIA and Western blot method to evaluate the specificity of the LFIA. Overall relative agreement of the two methods was 96.7% (29/30). Moreover, intra- and inter-assay precisions of the LFIA for Tm detection were <10.20% and <12.34%, respectively. The average recovery range in different food matrices was 80.3~111.8%, within a reasonable range. Our data confirmed that the superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based LFIA method developed in this study is rapid, simple, high specificity and capable of quantitative test. Consequently, the LFIA has the potential application in the field of point-of-care test of shellfish major allergen Tm.