A new Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) of the large-scale wheel loader was designed based on a buffer-induced structure. Dynamic Finite Element analysis model of the entire vehicle was created and boundary conditions of typical rollover cases were given. Optimization design of this new ROPS was obtained through a comprehensive analysis of 16 dynamic simulation samples, which were designed by Orthogonal Experimental Method. Comparison analysis of dynamic response results between original ROPS and optimal new ROPS indicates that this new ROPS effectively prolonged the duration time of the first collision and reduced the acting time of peak force. Deformation extent of main structure of this new ROPS is significantly smaller than that of the original ROPS. Buffer-induced structures can increase the kinetic energy absorption capability of ROPS. Therefore, it can reduce the possibility of brittle fracture of ROPS and improve the probability of operator survival.