Material mechanics and dynamic properties affect the service life of parts, and also the normal operation of machines. In order to reduce the processing time and improve the quality of machining, a cylindrical roller was used in the research. Cylindrical ultrasonic rolling machining (CURM) is an efficient way to enhance the service properties and surface characteristics of components. CURM was designed and later tested on the 45# steel surface. The result showed that the plastic deformation of surface layer was symmetrical and the surface grain was reduced in size by approximately 4.2%. The result of the experiment showed that CURM was effective in enhancing the productivity as well as enlarging the yield strength and hardness of components.