Due to the high-speed, short-time countermeasure and small target strength of underwater high-speed small targets (UHSST), it is difficult to use a traditional method to accurately detect UHSST. So a novel passive detection model based on three-dimensional hyperbeam forming (3D-HBF) and fuzzy support vector data description (FSVDD) is proposed, where these advantages of beam width reduction and side lobe suppression for 3D-HBF and excellent target-detection capability for FSVDD are combined. The model consists of two stages. In the first stage, 3D-HBF is carried out to obtain the beam respond vectors (BSV) from original underwater acoustic signals. In the second stage, the BSV are input into the detector based on FSVDD to detect and locate the underwater targets intelligently. This model is applied to target detection of UHSST, and these testing results show that the proposed model has better detection performance than the conventional beam forming method, with a high detection success rate and localization capability.