Heavy-duty hydrostatic rotary table is an important part of heavy-duty CNC gantry machine, which performance determines the machining accuracy and stability of the machine. Viscosity of hydraulic oil is one of the most important factors which influence the carrying capacity of the hydrostatic rotary table, but viscosity of hydraulic oil is directly determined by temperature. Therefore, the carrying capacity of the hydrostatic rotary table is directly determined by temperature. This paper researches the relative between the different workpiece quality, cutting force, oil chamber pressure, oil film thickness, oil film stiffness and temperature of hydrostatic rotary table by using the theoretical method, and validates the influence of temperature on the carrying capacity of the hydrostatic rotary table by using experimental method. It provides the basis for researching the influence of environmental temperature on the carrying capacity and stiffness of the oil film.