Abstract . Topography plays a major role on surface-cell interaction beside the surface chemistry. We investigated the effect of the nanotopography on vascular cell adhesion and proliferation in order to improve endothelialisation for restenosis treatment. In this context, Al2O3 nanowires (NWs) composed of a stable Al2O3 shell and an Al core were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of the molecular precursor (tBuOAlH2)2. After the detailed material characterization, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMC) were seeded and cultivated on these surfaces. Our preliminary results showed that there is a preference of HUVEC adhesion on NWs in comparison to that of HUVSMC. The control of the cell–surface interaction by the topography may represent a key issue for the future stent material design.