Cutting and friction experiments were conducted in various atmospheres to investigate the chemical effect on textured cutting tools. The cutting experiments indicated that the atmosphere affected the machinability of the textured tools; a larger effect was observed in the presence of gas such as oxygen. A ball-on-disk friction apparatus was developed and used for the friction experiments. Smaller friction coefficients were observed in the presence of oxygen, a trend similar to that observed during the cutting experiments. These results indicate that oxidation is an important factor in determining the texture effect for machining aluminum alloy.