Cumulative fatigue damage is an important consideration in determining the fatigue life of structures. A cumulative linear damage rule cannot provide a reasonable explanation for cumulative fatigue damage, but a damage curve method based on nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage model can give a reasonable explanation. In this paper, a specific mathematical model is put forward, which is based on the damage curve method. In the model, miner formula is modified properly and an exponent formula is give out to fit the damage accumulate. According to a two-step fatigue test of aluminum–alloy welded joint, the comparison between the calculated results and the testing results is less than 5%. It shows that the model is reasonable and accuracy.