Identifying variables for measuring organizational performance relative to QMS implementation is the basis work for research of relation between QMS and organizational performance. Firstly, by literature analysis empirical researches in commercial industry are reviewed and the main variables are listed that help comparatively identify those in defense industry. Secondly, Chinese defense industry’s market structure, property of defense enterprises and defense product features are systematically analyzed and the preliminary variables for measuring organizational performance relative to QMS implementation are identified. Thirdly, with using Delphi method, those preliminary variables are screened and supplemented. At last, final twelve variables are identified, which are divided into three categories that are quality, innovation and operation. This study contributes not only to test the efficacy of QMS implementation in defense industry, but also to extend and deepen modern quality management theory.