In this paper, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was prepared with tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP)/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) system as solid phase and phosphate buffered solution (PBS) as liquid phase, then silk fibroin (SF) was added into CPC to form silk fibroin/calcium phosphate composite. To study the effect of SF on the properties of composite, different mass fraction of SF was added into the composite. The surface morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope. The setting time was investigated by ISO Cement Standard Consistency Instrument. The structure of the composite was studied by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Mechanical properties of samples were tested by Instron Universal Testing Machine. The results showed that the particles of SF could be seen obviously in the surface of all composite, and acicular crystal of hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed in the hardening body of both the composite and the pure CPC. The acicular crystal of HA derived from composite with SF appeared to be thinner. The setting times of the composites were all between 9 to 15min. Compared to pure CPC, the compressive strength and work-of-compressive of composites were all improved. The compressive strength of the composite with 1% SF increased obviously.