The PVP/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers with different Fe3O4 nanoparticle loading were obtained by electrospinning. The characterization and performance analysis of the composite nanofibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and antistatic fabric instrument. The results showed that the average diameter of PVP/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers is smaller than that of pure PVP. At 5wt% Fe3O4 nanoparticle loading, the coefficient of variation CV value was low, while the composite nanofiber diameter distribution was good. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were spherical and had no obvious agglomeration. With increasing Fe3O4 nanoparticle loading, the thermal and antistatic properties of PVP/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers were significantly improved.