The thermal insulating of new and existing buildings is of a key influence in reduction of their energetic demand factor resulting in reduction of emissions of gases, carbon particles and dust which directly improves the environment. At development of light thermal insulation plasters with very low thermal conductivity the foam-plastic matters or light porous aggregates are frequently used at present. The foam-plastic materials do not appear as convenient ones in view of the environment and sustainable development as well. In the given case the thermal insulation plasters based on light cellular aggregates appear as more suitable. However a majority of light aggregates (for example expanded perlite) do not show a good ratio of insulation and mechanical properties. The paper describes a design and development of thermal insulation plasters based on expanded obsidian that can be used for thermal insulating of building constructions and for moisture sanitation. Considering the applied type of aggregates the materials show better ratio of thermal insulation and mechanical properties while in practice the plasters can be used as a full- value alternative for classical thermal insulation systems.