CuO nanocrystal has been successfully synthesized by adopting liquid phase reaction and using cupric nitrate and sodium hydroxide as raw materials. The prepared products are characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TEM. The catalysis of CuO Nanocrystal on KClO4 is investigated by thermal analysis. The results show that CuO nanocrystal is consisted of the mixture of spherical nanoparticles with an average sizes of 11nm. The catalysis of CuO nanocrystal on KClO4 thermal decomposition was strong. And it makes thermal decomposition temperature of KClO4 to decrease 97.7 °C, the decalescence amount also reduced to 79.07 J/g. But the addition of CuO nanocrystal has no effect on the crystal shape transformation of KClO4.