Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is biosynthetic aliphatic polyester with good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this paper, PHBV biodegradable fibers were manufactured by melt-spinning, and the drawing procedure and heat setting of the fibers were applied. By X-ray diffraction, SEM and stress-strain measurements, the crystalline and mechanical properties of PHBV fibers were investigated. The results showed that β-form crystals were obtained in some PHBV fibers. Surface fibrillation phenomenon occurred in the oriented PHBV fibers. The tensile strength of PHBV fibers increased with increasing the draw ratio. The tensile strength of 10 times stretched PHBV fibers can reach 227 MPa.