In this paper, the thermal infrared radiation (TIR) induced by the interaction between bolt and rock and the mechanism of thermo-mechanical coupling are investigated. The experiment study shows that the TIR radiation caused by stress concentration, strong friction and interaction area between rock and bolt, is much stronger than that caused by stress relaxation and week friction. The bolted ranges with the single bolt and two bolts are determined from the change ratios of TIR temperature of the different areas of the bolted rocks. The bolting effects could be detected by means of thermal infrared imaging detection. The infrared thermal image anomaly appeared bolted rock failure, which reflected the spatial and temporal features of infrared precursor respectively. The infrared thermal image precursor was classified as high-temperature strip and low-temperature strip.