The paper presents a failure analysis on a counterweight assembly installed on crank shaft which resulted in an in-flight shutdown of a piston aeroengine. The counterweight assembly failure includes counterweight block material loss and fractured washer which is the most crucial part for in-flight shutdown in this type of aeroengine. Macro observation, fractography analysis, metallography analysis and hardness test were conducted on the failed counterweight assembly. The result shows that failure mechanism of counterweight block and washer is fatigue. The washer failure is likely due to inappropriate heat treatment process and continuous impact in flight by slightly tilted roller. Counterweight material loss is attributed to stress concentration, low structure strength and impact came from the tilted roller. Finally some safety suggestion on design and maintenance is given.